Business Law, Tamil Nadu

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Authored By : Kapoor N.D.

Publisher: Sultan Chand & Sons

Book Price: 450.00

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Business Law, Tamil Nadu

Sixth Revised Edn. 2016

Summary of the Book

The Companies Act, 2013

NeW Features :

  1. The new Companies Act 2013 effective from 01,04.2014 has dispensed with the prior approval of the Central Government on most of the matters of companies which have now been left to be decided by the Boards of Directors of companies and/or the shareholders. The objective is promotion of a legal framework of responsible self-regulation in the corporate sector.
  2. The urgent need for preventing serious irregularities in auditing job which came to light in the country in the recent past is reflected in the elaboration of the functions of statutory Auditors in the new Companies Act. Further there is thffeat of punishment with imprisonment of one year and hefty fine in case an Auditor has contravened any of .the provisions knowingly or willfully with the intention to deceive the stakeholders.
  3. The new Companies Act 2013 has Introduced the concept of key managerial personnel which comprises of Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Company Secretary and the Chief Financial Officer. The Rules provide that it is mandatory for every company having paid-up share capital of ten crores of rupees or more to have whole-time key managerial personnel, which only goes to give statutory backing to the position generally prevalent in the corporate sector.
  4. Under the new Companies Act 2013 the composition of the Board of certain class or classes of companies shallat least include one woman Director. This provision will be applicable to all listed companies and also to certain big public companies.
  5. The Companies Act 2013 has now made it compulsory to have one-third of the Board as Independent Directors for listed companies as well as certain big public companies.
  6. The new Companies Act 2013 provides for constitution of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Committee of the Board to formulate the CSR policy for undertaking the activities specified, in large companies of the size prescribed. Such companies are required to spend at least two percent of their profits in every financial year. The shortfall if any, in spending such amount having to be disclosed in the Board’s report with the reasons for not spending the amount. There is the need for big companies to extend some help to the community in which they function and prosper.
  7. The secretarial audit report provided in respect of listed companies to be annexed to the Board’s Report, given by a company secretary will help in improving the compliance by the companies.
  8. A New category of company introduced by the Companies Act 2013 namely One Person Company limited will be private limited in nature. This Category will enable sole proprietorships to convert themselves into one person companies and to derive the benefits of incorporation under the Companies Act 2013.
  9. The law of acceptance of deposits by companies has been rationalized with the predominant objective being to protect the interest of several depositors. The latter objective is proposed to- be achieved by making it mandatory for companies accepting deposits to give the depositors insurance cover with guaranteed recovery of deposit upto R 20,000 per depositor in case of default. The companies are also required to create a charge on the assets of the company in favour of depositors as security for the repayment of balance money, if any. The Companies Act 2013 restricts the option to invite deposits from public to fairly big public companies like companies having net worth of rupees one hundred crores or turnover of rupees five hundred crores while all companies, public or private, are allowed to accept deposits upto 10% from their members.
  10. Transactions with related parties are subjected to greater disclosure.
  11. The procedure regarding managerial remuneration in the new Companies Act 2013 continues to be the same as it was under the previous Companies Act 1956 and the same will be governed by the provisions of Schedule V which gives the freedom to companies making profits to fix remuneration up to 5% or 10% of net profits, as the case may be, and, in respect of companies having no or inadequate profits, to fix remuneration on the basis of the scale of remuneration given depending on the effective capital of such a company. With the graded scale of remuneration having been composed in a manner to suit the current trends and in a liberal way, it is expected that there may be fewer occasions for companies to seek the prior approval of Government for managerial remuneration
  12. The Companies Act 2013 has included Nidhis which are small public companies formed to promote the habit of thrift amongst its members, These will be found to be, valuable to the community in cities and towns.



Book Content

Preface                                                                                                                                                                            v

       1.    Introductory                                                                                                                                                       1

Part One—general principles of law of contract                                                                                          

       1.    Nature of Contract                                                                                                                                              5

       2.    Offer and Acceptance                                                                                                                                       17

       3.    Consideration                                                                                                                                                    35

       4.    Capacity to Contract                                                                                                                                          47

       5.    Free Consent                                                                                                                                                     56

       6.    Legality of Object                                                                                                                                               78

       7.    Void Agreements                                                                                                                                                93

       8.    Contingent Contracts                                                                                                                                         101

       9.    Performance of Contract                                                                                                                                    106

     10.    Discharge of Contract                                                                                                                                         121

     11.    Remedies for Breach of Contract                                                                                                                        136

     12.    Quasi-Contracts                                                                                                                                                  149

Part Two—special contracts

       1.    Indemnity and Guarantee                                                                                                                                    157

       2.    Bailment and Pledge                                                                                                                                            175

       3.    Contract of Agency                                                                                                                                               191

       4.    4-1.     Sale of Goods                                                                                                                                            222

               4-2.     Conditions and Warranties                                                                                                                        233

               4-3.     Transfer of Property                                                                                                                                   245

               4-4.     Performance of Contract                                                                                                                           260

               4-5.     Rights of an Unpaid Seller                                                                                                                        270

       5.    5-1.     Partnership                                                                                                                                                 282

               5-2.     Relations of Partners                                                                                                                                 297

               5-3.     Dissolution of Firm                                                                                                                                     319


           1.   Nature of Company                                                                                                                                           1–10

           2.   Kinds of Companies                                                                                                                                        11–28

           3.   Formation of Company                                                                                                                                    29–43

           4.   Memorandum of Association                                                                                                                           44–52

           5.   Articles of Association                                                                                                                                     53–61

           6.   Prospectus                                                                                                                                                      62–86

           7.   Share Capital and Debentures                                                                                                                        87–108

           8.   Acceptance of Deposits by Companies                                                                                                          109–111

           9.   Registration of Charges                                                                                                                                   112–116

        10.   Management and Administration                                                                                                                       117–133

        11.   Declaration and Payment of Dividend                                                                                                                134–136

        12.   Accounts of Companies                                                                                                                                      137–145

        13.   Audit and Auditors                                                                                                                                               146–157

        14.   Appointment of Directors                                                                                                                                     158–172

        15.   Meeting of Board and its Powers                                                                                                                         173–192

        16.   Membership in a Company                                                                                                                                  193—201

        17.   Shares                                                                                                                                                                   202—228

        18.   Borrowing Powers, Debentures and Charges                                                                                                        229—239


                 Highlights of Companies Act, 12013                                                                                                                  I —XXIV

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